The Opportunities Extended by Global Exposure in Management Education
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Expert Author Susan Louise Peterson
School Psychology professionals and clinicians are often asked to complete multi-team assessments for early childhood and pre-kindergarten children. Here are four tips that may help professionals involved in multi-team early childhood assessments.
Tip One: A multi-team assessment can take many forms. Some school districts have the child go around to different clinician's offices and they are tested or interviewed individually by the school psychologist, speech therapist, school nurse, special education teacher, general education teacher and other professionals if needed (such as the occupational therapist, physical therapist or vision and hearing specialist.). The clinicians then consult with each other after the family leaves the assessment offices. Other school districts may use a more play-based assessment system where the child is playing with other children and all the clinicians are watching the child at the same time. The clinicians can quickly share information and make determinations as to whether the child continues in the assessment and needs no further assessment, a screener or a full assessment.
Tip Two: Seek outside assistance if needed. Some clinicians just need more information than they get from a one time assessment. It may be necessary to obtain consent from the parent to contact outside agencies or organizations. This may include obtaining additional medical information, contacting preschools or day care programs the child is attending and social service or foster care agencies to get a better picture of the child. It may be necessary for the school psychologists and clinicians to make additional observations of the child as he or she interacts with same age peers in preschool. This outside assistance can help get a broader picture of how the child appears in different settings and situations.
Tip Three: Seek Parent or Guardian Input in the Multi-Team Assessment. Parents or guardians often know their young children best so it makes practical sense to collect as much information as possible from parents and caregivers. It is important to note that guardians can also have different perspectives about the child. The clinician or school psychologist can find similar factors that a parent or guardian reports, but the clinician can also note differences in reporting the results. Parents or guardians may not view the child in the same way so clinicians may have to share some unique or overlooked characteristics the child is presenting with in the assessment process.
Tip Four: Write Recommendations to Reflect Possible Changes in the Child. The clinicians and school psychologist may want to consider broad recommendations to understand the child may be making changes. Sometimes recommendations may include areas of the assessment where the child was inconsistent with task completion. It could be the child needs more practice to fully master a task or needs directions repeated to fully understand how to do an activity. There may also be inconsistencies in characteristics the child presents like limited eye contact that may need to be monitored or observed more as the child attends pre-school or participates in play activities.
Are you old enough to believe, that for every drop of rain that falls, a flower grows? Or, that somewhere in the darkest night, a candle glows? What about the notion that for everyone that goes astray, someone will come to show the way? Even when they were written some people didn't accept these sentiments. They had the belief that to be true something must be proved as tangibly so. The growth of scientific culture could mean we might all end up thinking that there is a demonstrable explanation for everything and if there isn't, well we can't really believe in it.
We sometimes meet gullible individuals like the flat-earther's who seem to be able to believe almost anything. This attitude is mocked in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass when the White Queen says,
"Why, sometimes I've believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast."
So, what should we actually acknowledge to be true? Do beliefs have to make sense before we accept them?
Belief and open-mindedness
I guess we differ a lot in our natural makeup. Perhaps this affects the way we are inclined to think about things. For example, according to the prevailing 'Five Factor Model of Personality', those who are conventional and traditional in outlook prefer familiar routines to new experiences and tend to have a narrower range of interests. At the other end of the scale are those who are more open to experience, with curiosity about ideas and sensitivity to aesthetic expression, and give more attention to inner feelings and imagination. Being closed-minded or open-minded are two poles apart and most people fall somewhere along the continuum between them. However, it's notdifficult to see how this might affect the nature of one's beliefs.
Belief and a tough-minded disposition
Many of our political beliefs and social attitudes seem to be influenced by what is called a tough-minded or tender-minded disposition. This psychological continuum was first described by William James and is part of Hans Eysenck's two factor model of political attitude. For example some people think that more money should be spent on the justice system because more criminals should be caught and get what they deserve. On the other hand, others take the view that society should prevent crime by sharing resources more fairly and caring for people who are vulnerable.
Belief and how we make judgments
Belief can be more influenced by the heart or the head; by subjective experience or by objective rational logic. I reckon we are all inclined towards one of these two. Making sense more of our feelings or more of our thoughts. Are you more likely to believe in what you feel in your heart is valuable or is your belief more likely to be based on logical thought? The danger of the former can be a blind faith in some cause. The danger of the latter can be a cold impersonal conclusion.
Readiness to form a judgment
We all can perceive life using our bodily senses and intuitions. We also all can, if we wish, form conclusions about what we perceive. However, according to Carl Jung's theory of Personality Typology, judging or perceiving can be the dominant mode. So, he reckoned that there are judging and perceiving types of personality. Judging types seek to order, rationalise, and structure their outer world, as they actively judge external stimuli. They prefer to make decisions quickly and to stick to their conclusions once made. On the other hand, perceiving types do not seek to impose order on the outer world, but are more adaptive, perceptive, and open, as they receive external stimuli. They have a flexible, open-ended approach to life.
Belief and religious orientation
I suspect that similar to this perceiving type is the so-called Quest religious orientation. According to Daniel Batson's theory people with this orientation treat their spirituality not as a means or an end, but as a search for truth.
"An individual who approaches religion in this way recognizes that he or she does not know, and probably never will know, the final truth about such matters. Still the questions are deemed important, and however tentative and subject to changes, answers are sought." (Daniel Batson, social psychologist)
Belief and personal development
I would suggest that we perceive things through a natural, moral or spiritual lens according to our personal development. At a first stage of personal development we tend to see life in terms of physical things and according to an instinctive need to be nurtured and have intimacy. And so we make sense of experiences in relation to these factors. Further development involves basing one's belief on what is good and right in interpersonal conduct. e.g. belief to do with moral values of fairness and integrity. Further on still, one's ideas may be illuminated by a deeper perception of what is good in life e.g. human well-being, a meaning and purpose to life and an awareness of a hidden power behind the universe. For example, that there is a life force and design within nature - not measurable by science but felt as something universal and infinite.
Belief and understanding
So far, I've been making out a case that individual differences in natural tendency and personal development affect how we make sense of the world and thus shape our belief. However, now I would ask could it be that there is an important additional factor. Is it a rational understanding inherent to being truly human? If so it is:
"Our ability to see and know, if we try, what is true and what is good"(Emanuel Swedenborg, spiritual philosopher)
Because of this understanding, I would say we can discern between what makes sense and what doesn't. Without this capacity how could we have self-awareness and self-reflection? Without it how could we look at the pro's and con's of some proposal without undue bias? And without it how could we have a conscience of what is right in the face of unwholesome desires.
In other words this rationality is present no matter what kind of temperament and tendencies we are born with, and no matter whether we are functioning at a natural, ethical or spiritual level. It enables us to evaluate what ideas we hear about independently of our desires. Consequently, I would conclude that it obliges us to form our beliefs on the basis of what makes rational sense using a higher light of understanding.
As a clinical psychologist, Stephen Russell-Lacy has specialised in cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, working for many years with adults suffering distress and disturbance.
I was surprised to learn the young man who'd asked me such an interesting question was only 17 years old. His curly hair hung down to his shoulders, and he wore the kind of tie-dyed t-shirts I used to wear when I was 17. But his inquisitive brown eyes were filled with wisdom, and when I looked at him, I felt I was gazing into the spirit of an old soul. Our brief chat was enough to give me hope that, yes, a new generation of lightworkers out there are eager to learn about how to spread love, hope and wonder.
This happened at an event where I was promoting my book Compassionate Messenger, taking questions from the audience about mediumship and spirituality, and delivering a few messages from spirit to people in the audience. We sandwiched about 35 people in the basement of a bookstore, between shelves filled with paperbacks.
After opening the floor for questions, I received the usual inquiries asking me how I got started in mediumship, do I believe protection is important, and how do I know when I'm really connecting with a spirit?
A young man sitting near the back of the room raised his hand, then put it down, looked at the floor for a few minutes, then raised his arm again. And then put it down again. The third time I saw his arm go up, I immediately went to him.
He spoke clearly and confidently, yet there was also a tentativeness in his voice. "Can a person be too young to decide if he wants to develop psychic abilities?" he asked. "Or do you have to wait 'til you're older?"
I had to smile. "You're never too young to begin developing intuitive abilities," I said, then told him about how I'd seen spirit lights when I was eight years old, and how I felt lucky to be born into a family who didn't discourage interaction with spirit. My grandmother was the hairdresser of the medium who used to visit P rime Minister McKenzie King, who was a Spiritualist, and when I was 19 my father introduced me to his psychic, Sadie, a medium who would become my mentor for the next two decades.
I turned to my husband and asked if he had anything to add. "I began reading tarot cards when I was 16," he said. "I can't remember now what drew me to them, but even as a child I was always fascinated by all kinds of cards." And then he looked the young man in the eye. "And what do you mean by older, sonny?"
Everyone had a good laugh. Afterwards, the young man sought me out. Craig told me he was only 17 years old, and had several experiences he couldn't explain. But rather than being unnerved by them, he wanted to know more about the spirit world.
I encouraged Craig find a mentor, or join a meditation group or a developmental circle that had positive-thinking, like-minded individuals who would help him develop his gifts - gifts, incidentally, that we all have (but not all of us are aware of).
I hope Craig finds his mentor or his group. I also hope he feels confident enough to explore his curiosity about psychic abilities, and that his parents are supportive of their son's desire to pursue his burgeoning talents. If so, I congratulate his parents for being open enough to let Craig discover if being a lightworker is the path he'd like to walk. And if so... well, as they say, when the student is ready, the teacher will appear.
Carolyn Molnar is a Toronto based Psychic Medium and Spiritual Teacher. She has over 30 years' experience. She provides readings and also teaches others how to tap into their intuitive abilities.
Her book, 'It Is Time: Knowledge From The Other Side', has made a real impact in how people understand intuition. She has been featured on radio, television and in print. Carolyn believes intuition is accessible to everyone.
The banking sector in India is poised for robust growth as technological advancements and policy reforms continue to provide the impetus to growth. A well-developed BFSI sector is a must for economic progress, and that is why the banking sector today is holding a strong emphasis on strengthening the overall customer experience by providing better and personalized services for their clients. The ingress of technology and expansion of banking services have resulted in a surge in demand for banking professionals with requisite skills and qualifications. As a result, relevant education in Banking and Finance management from a reputed institution has become crucial for those aspiring to make a robust career in the BFSI domain.
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TimesPro - A Name to Reckon With in the World of Banking Education
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All-round Skills Development for Immense Professional Growth
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PGDBM XL Program - The Roadmap to Lucrative Job Opportunities
The PGDBM XL Program at TimesPro has been well sketched out with practical learning, projects, and workshop galore, all of which serve to provide the students with the much-needed exposure to the industry trends and practices. The best part of the program is the placement support and training which helps to ensure that the students get placements as per their capabilities and expertise. Students are given the necessary guidance and training to meet the company requirements and face the interviews with confidence. The placement cell at TimesPro, recognized as the Best Banking Courses Institute in India, offers the students practical training and skills development opportunities along with theoretical learning. The eminent faculty at TimesPro ensures that the students are infused with all the essentials to achieve hierarchical success in their career. Indeed TimesPro's PGDBM is a road-map to accomplish a fruitful career post placement.
TimesPro's PGDBM XL program focuses on high quality learning and development through a consolidated framework of academics and experiential applications that helps prepare students thoroughly for progressive opportunities within the banking sector. The course predominantly aims at preparing students cognitively, technically and academically for actualizing their inert potential for the industry. The institute aims at leveraging various approaches and methodologies to offer a blended learning experience to the students so as to enable them to gain a deepened insight into the professional, practical, and corporate world of banking.
During meditation one is not engrossed in bodily and worldly things but the mind is detached from them. In this state people may be more open to spiritual intuition. For example that there is a hidden life force and design within nature. Not measurable by science but felt as something universal and infinite. For those with a religious inclination this transcendent reality is associated with a higher purpose to life and a divine providence - a creative source that is both within and beyond the world: in it, but not of it; simultaneously pervading it and surpassing it.
If we do perceive some sort of transcendent reality, how can we understand it? How can we make rational sense of it? Should we even try?
Limitation of earthly thought
In daily life we tend to perceive things in terms of opposites: for example, high or low, rough or smooth, black or white. Likewise, when using abstract terms we contrast one idea with its opposite - as this or that, one thing or the other, and all or nothing. Examples include good-bad, perfect-imperfect, finite-infinite. We come to depend on these dichotomous categories for understanding experience. This is convenient but human life can be more complex. Thinking in simple polarities creates the problem of how to respond to the shadings in between.
Buddha credited his finding the middle way of Buddhism to the comment of a passing boatman who remarked that a string too tight will break, and one too loose will not sound. The middle way between extremes makes music.
Not surprisingly, using categorical ways of thinking may hinder an understanding of transcendent reality beyond the self, a perception found deep within the soul. Any such reality might be expected to be greater than our worldly minds can easily comprehend.
Non-dual thought & transcendent reality
At the other extreme from earthly thought is the experience of mystics. From a wide range of religious and spiritual traditions, these individuals have experienced what they cannot easily describe. They refer to non-dual experience. They say there is a one transcendent reality behind the universe they call 'the One', 'the All', and 'the ground of all being.'; such that everything is linked together.
Does enlightened perception surpasses dual ways of thinking? Let's consider life and death. They are clearly opposites when we see these in an earthly way. A deeper understanding however rises above this duality so that life and death are seen as merging into the same process.
"If all plants did not die, leaf by leaf or as a whole, the earth would have become one dense mass of plants eons ago. It would be a plant disaster. All nutrients would have been taken out of the soil and no new plant would have room to live. Dying is a vital part of living. " (Wilson Van Dusen, mystic and psychologist)
Another example is sex and love. To those who have a love of sex, the feelings of romance and physical excitement are not the same thing at all. But to those who have an enlightened love of one of the sex, the tender feelings of love merge into the desire to give and receive sexual pleasure.
Rational thinking & transcendent reality
Theological debate is full of polarised ideas - right-wrong, good-evil, God-person, salvation-sin etc. Many of us would probably agree that any kind of intellectual argument for its own sake often gets us nowhere. It lacks a spirit of life when it has no connection with the experience of the human condition.
Yet, I would suggest, reasoning in terms of dualistic categories of thought sometimes has its use for us. This is when we are in touch with imperfection, disorder, even chaos. Whose life isn't touched by such circumstances?
Helen Keller who was profoundly disabled wrote of her rational discernment.
"My life is so complicated by a triple handicap of blindness, deafness, and imperfect speech that I cannot do the simplest thing without thought and effort to rationalize my experiences. If I employed (the)... mystic sense constantly without trying to understand the outside world, my progress would be checked, and everything would fall about me in chaos. It is easy for me to mix up dreams and reality, the spiritual and the physical that I have not properly visualized; without discernment I could not keep them apart." (Helen Keller)
Mind states & transcendent reality
Transcendent reality may be goodness itself, but when human beings in their egocentric ways turn their back on this, by behaving badly they create suffering, and misery - for themselves as well as for others. When faced with problems in living, the mistakes and illusions of life can mislead us.
The spiritual philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg compares each of us to a garden, our understanding to light and our feelings to warmth. When we have both light in our understanding and warmth in our feelings, we are like a garden in summer. Then we are spiritually alive to what is good and our enlightened ideas flourish.
However, although a garden in winter has some limited light, it receives no warmth. Plant life is dormant. At times we are like a garden in winter. For example we may be struggling with temptation and challenge. Then although we may have some limited light of rational ideas, these difficulties separate us from enlightening inspiration.
In other words in the wintry state we lack any good and warm connection with all that is good from transcendent reality. And lacking this warmth to motivate our good intentions, we have no immediate wise perception of what is sensible. All we can do instead is consult what rationally understood ideas we have learned. Perhaps fall back on our conscience and understanding of what is reasonable and ethical.
Conclusion about transcendent reality
We may only occasionally have deep spiritual experiences and they are direct evidence of transcendent reality of goodness within existence. Nevertheless we can learn something about transcendence through rational ideas which we can apply in other states of mind.
As a clinical psychologist, Stephen Russell-Lacy has specialised in cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, working for many years with adults suffering distress and disturbance.
He edits Spiritual Questions a free eZine that explores links between spiritual philosophy and the comments and questions of spiritual seekers. You can share your views and find out more about making sense of life.